Students take on the role of HAWC engineers to design and test a Moon-to-Earth mass driver.

Description
### Experiments

### Objectives

### Next Generation Science Standards

### Common Core Mathematics Standards

A lunar construction crew will be building a state-of-the-art mass driver to launch Helium-3 shipments from the Moon to Earth, replacing dangerous and expensive rocket propulsion systems. Your students will take on the role of a HAWC engineering team tasked with designing and testing a mass driver that will achieve this goal.

- Design, build and test a mass driver.
- Map the flow of energy through the system as it is converted from one form to another.

- Student will understand the difference between Potential, Kinetic, Magnetic, and Electrical Energy.
- Student will develop an understanding of the law of conservation of energy and be able to explain why energy conversion processes are not 100% efficient.
- Student will be able to create a model for projectile motion in two dimensions.
- Student will understand the three laws of motion.
- Student will state and use Ohm's law to solve electrical circuit problems.
- Student will demonstrate understanding of linear and non-linear functions.
- Student will be able to use the right hand rule to draw magnetic forces in a line, ring, and coil.
- Design and construct an electromagnetic coil and use the coil in a mass driver.
- Map the flow of energy through the mass driver while maintaining an energy balance.
- Calculate the efficiency for transferring electrical energy into kinetic energy for a model mass driver.

PS2.A: Forces and Motion

HS-PS2-1. Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the

mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.

MS-PS2-2. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of

a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

HS-PS2-4. Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law

to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects.

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

HS-PS3-2. Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted

for as either motions of particles or energy stored in fields.

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer

HS-PS3-1. Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component

in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and

out of the system are known.

HS-PS3-5. Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic

fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to

the interaction.

ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

HS-ESS1-4. Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting

objects in the solar system.

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

HS-PS2-5. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can

produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current.

HS-PS3-3. Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one

form of energy into another form of energy.

HS-ETS1-1. Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and

constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

HS-ETS1-2. Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller,

more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

HS-ETS1-3. Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problembased on prioritized criteria and

trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics,

as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.

HS-ETS1-4. Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex

real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between

systems relevant to the problem.

*Note: It is impossible for one kit to fully teach the nuances of each common core standard. However, an**introduction to topics within many of these standards are contained within the activity text, procedure,**pre-and post-lab questions. This kit makes an excellent introduction to practical applications of the**topics covered by the standards.*

High School: Number and Quantity*Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems*

HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multistep

problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the

scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.

HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.

HSN-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations of measurement when reporting

quantities.

High School: Algebra*Interpret the structure of expressions.*

HSA-SSE.A.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.

HSA-SSE.A.1a Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients.

HSA-SSE.A.1b Interpret complicated expressions by vewing one or more of their parts as

a single entity.

*Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically.*

HSA-REI.D.10 Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all

its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line).

High School: Functions*Interpret functions that arise in terms of the context.*

CCSS.Math.Content.HSF-IF.B.4 For a function that models a relationship between two quantities,

interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs

showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship.

CCSS.Math.Content.HSF-IF.B.6 Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function

(presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change

from a graph.

*Analyze functions using different representations.*

CCSS.Math.Content.HSF-IF.C.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features

of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.

Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems.

CCSS.Math.Content.HSF-LE.A.1 Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear

functions and with exponential functions.

Included Materials

- Mass driver subassembly parts (8)
- Mass driver body
- Electromagnetic coil wire
- Coil end washers
- Ball bearing payloads
- Electronic launch box (1)
- Mass driver stand and target (1)
- Protractors (8)
- Microphone (1)
- Measuring tape

Required Materials

- Protective eyewear
- Hot glue guns (8 optimal)
- PC or laptop

Storage Conditions
Cool and Dark (Ambient)

Stability
Indefinite