With supplies running low, students must design heat collectors to help the HAWC astronauts survive.

Description
### Experiments

### Learning Objectives

### Next Generation Science Standards

### Common Core Mathematics Standards

Alice Torres must prioritize her time as two survival tasks weigh heavily on the HAWC team: re-establishing radio contact with Earth and mining ice from Shackleton crater to produce badly needed drinking water. Torres is torn between helping Plissken repair the radio and building a solar water heater with their sparse supplies to ensure the group's survival. Students will overcome a similar challenge by designing and constructing their own water heaters and analyzing their results.

- Measure the thermal energy delivered to an area.
- Design and build a device to concentrate and capture this energy in order to melt ice.
- Determine the efficiency of the device.

- Explain the effect of convection, conduction, and radiation energy as it relates to heating water remotely.
- Construct a solar water heater at a given location to melt ice.
- Build an apparatus to measure the thermal energy density at various locations in front of a heat source.
- Calculate the efficiency of the solar water heater.
- Explain the difference between the reflective projection of a constant-radius curve and a parabolic curve.
- Demonstrate an understanding of why different materials and dimensions produce different results in solar water heaters.

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer

HS-PS3-1. Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component

in a system when a change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and

out of the system are known.

MS-PS3-3. Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one

form of energy into another form of energy.

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

HS-ETS1-1. Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and

constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

HS-ETS1-2. Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller,

more maneagable problems that can be solved through engineering.

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

HS-ETS1-3. Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and

trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics,

as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.

*Note: It is impossible for one kit to fully teach the nuances of each common core standard. However, an**introduction to topics within many of these standards are contained within the activity text, procedure,**pre-and post-lab questions. This kit makes an excellent introduction to practical applications of the**topics covered by the standards.*

High School: Number and Quantity*Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems.*

HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multistep

problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the

scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.

HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.

HSN-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting

quantities.

High School: Algebra*Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning.*

HSA-REI.A.1 Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of

numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation

has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method.

Interpret the structure of expressions.

HSA-SSE.A.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.

High School: Geometry*Apply geometric concepts in modeling situations.*

HSG-MG.A.2 Apply concepts of density based on area and volume in modeling situations

(e.g., persons per square mile, BTUs per cubic foot).

HSG-MG.A.3 Apply geometric methods to solve design problems (e.g., designing an object

or structure to satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost; working with typographic grid

systems based on ratios).

Included Materials

- Heat sensors (2)
- Aluminum foil
- Thermometer
- Resealable plastic bags (8)
- Black and white card stock (8 each)
- Black and clear bottles (9 each)
- Small corrugated boxes (8)
- Carton sealing tape

Required Materials

- Multimeters with Type-K thermocouple port
- 250-Watt Halogen work light (2 recommended)

Storage Conditions
Cool and Dark (Ambient)

Stability
Indefinite